Finngreek This Week: 7 New Proposals

Rough, Bear-like = Karhea = Harkeia = Άρκεια

The name for bear in Finnish, Karhu, has been suggested by some to be derived from the adjective Karhea, meaning ‘rough, coarse, uneven’. However, in Finngreek, the opposite seems more suitable:
Bear = Karhu = Harku = Άρκος/Άρκου, Αρκούδα
Compare with this derived term from Oikos/Οίκος in Greek:
Suitable = Oikea = Oikeia = Οικεία

This would make -ea/-eia/-εια a Helleno-Uralic adjectivizing suffix for nouns, to describe being ‘of’ or ‘from’ the noun. Harkeia would still have probably originally referred to bear fur, in particular the outer layer of guard hairs present in bear fur. However, in Finngreek, Harkeia can describe anything like the physical or behavioral properties of a bear.

Slope = Rinne = Riinnæ = Ρίνα

There is also the short form Rin/Riinn per Greek ῥῑ́ν. Riinnæ in Finngreek means ‘slope/hillside/mountainside’, as well as ‘nose’ (Greek). While Proto-Finnic *nenä (nose) bears a resemblance to Rina (compare Estonian Nina), the reconstruction of -e- vs. -i- would make it an irregular doublet, and less likely. If the Uralic etymology for Rinne is correctly from Rinta + -e, it would additionally carry the meaning ‘chest’. This might have a connection with Rinón/Rinós/Ρινόν/Ρινός (shield), with final-syllable stress resulting in metathesis of either -n or -s into -nta. However, if Rinta and Ρινόν are connected, then Rinne would not need to be from Rinta + -e, but rather from Rin/Ris/Ρίν/Ρίς, which may be Pre-Greek.

Musician = Muusikko = Muusikkoo = Μουσικό(ς)

The Finnish word for music, Musiikki, is probably borrowed from Swedish Musik, from Latin Mūsica, from Ancient Greek Mousikḗ/Musikii/Μουσική. However, the term for musician involves what is considered a native Finnish suffix for beings: -kko. This suffix is etymologized as being from Proto-Finnic *-kko(i), from the diminuitive suffix -kka + -o. However, in Greek, -(i)kó(s) is also used to denote beings and likeness – and is seen in the same context as the Finnish suffix: Compare Fyysikko (physician) with Φυσικός, Poliitikko (politician) with Πολιτικός, and Unikko (poppy) with Υπνικό (hypnic). Whether -kko would be a Finngreek feature is unclear, as it would ultimately be from Proto-Indo-European *-kos, which creates deadjectival and desubstantival adjectives denoting a characteristic. However, the geminate -kk- of -kko suggests the final stress of Greek -kó, which results in Finngreek -kkoo.

Room = Huone = Hoore = Χώρε

The Greek word Χώρε, the vocative form of Horos/Χώρος, is considered Pre-Greek. The phonological comparison with Huone involves ώ>oo>uo (compare Proto-Finnic *hooneh and Estonian Hoone), as seen in comparisons like:

Body/Person, Finn = Suoma = Sooma = Σώμα
Drink = Juoma = Pjooma = Πώμα
Food, Grape/Berry, Seed/Clove = Ruoka = Rooga = Ρώγα

The change of VrV>VnV is also seen in comparisons like Puna = Puraa = Πυρρά, meaning ‘red’.

To exert, struggle, try hard = Ponnistaa = Ponniisthae = Πονείσθαι

There is some etymological uncertainty with this proposal. Finnish Ponnistaa has been etymologized from Ponsi, which primarily refers to part of the stamen of a flower. However, it can also refer to ‘vigor’. It is ultimately listed as being from Proto-Finno-Permic *ponte. The Greek Πονείσθαι/Πονέεσθαι is from the verb Πονέω, from Ponos/Πόνος, meaning ‘hard work, bodily exertion, toil’. The comparison of the Finnish verb suffix -(i)staa with the Greek mediopassive ending -(ί)σθαι is considered regular Finngreek. However, while *ponte might be cognate with Pone/Πόνε (vocative of Πόνος), the original meaning – as well as its non-Finnic reflexes – appears to be unavailable online. The *-t- may be akin to the *-p- in Proto-Uralic *kumpa (wave). Compare Greek Kuma/Κύμα. Alternatively, Ponsi might be cognate with Ponisi/Πόνηση, also meaning ‘toil, exertion’.

That which is seen, View, Thought =
Νäkymä = Nóhema = Νόημα

These terms are probably not perfect cognates, since Νäkymä is derived from Νäkyä, rather than being directly derived from Νähdä. However, they both go back in Finngreek to Proto-Uralic *näke- (to see) and Greek Νοέω (to see, observe, perceive, think). These näke- and no(h)e- roots are ultimately paired with the -ma(t[a]) suffix, resulting in Finngreek Nóhema (pl. Nohémata). In Finngreek, Nóhema refers to anything that is seen or perceived, such as scenery, photographs, videos, ideas, and dreams.

Night, Waning = Yö<*Üje = Pye/Víi = Πύη

This is a phonologically suitable, but overall unclear proposal. Πύη/Pýe/Píi is listed as a “possibly false reading” of Φθόη in the work of Aretaios, an Ionian physician from Cappadocia; and this would give Πύη the same meaning as Φθίσις: A decline or decay; as well as the waning of the moon. If Πύη is the source of Proto-Uralic *üje, then the night would be akin to the waning or decline of the day.

The phonological basis is as follows: Overwhelming initial p- loss in Uralic reflexes, with p->v- retained in Moksha Ve and Komi-Zyrian Voj. The remaining -ye can be compared with proposals like Työ = Δύη, and Lyö = Λύε. Various Uralic reflexes show at least partial iotacism as occurred into modern Greek Pýe>Píi, such as Kildin Sami Ɨjj, Livonian Īe, Udmurt Uj, and Hungarian Éj.

Finngreek Writing: “Tosi Oikeia” (So True)

This week’s entry is simply a poem with comparative texts. As always, the Finnish and Greek texts aren’t grammatically correct, because they are direct translations of Finngreek terms. Please only use them to learn Finngreek.

Since this is creative writing, the spelling is not standardized like in the lessons, and the word order is free, which may make it more difficult to read. If you’d like an easier text, check out The Fox and the Bear, Part 1.

The order of texts (top left to bottom right) is: Finnish, Finngreek, English, and Greek.

Tosi Oikea

Uusi usma hämärä
laaksoihin ennustaa
Pilvi-noita nokkela
näkee nummen näkymässä

Valomuisti nyt kiihkeä
tunne pitkä, mieli puna
Aistisi tosi oikea
mutta en ton ymmärrä

Ongelma jäädyttää päivän
iskusi iskee ydintä
Kuulen äänen alkaa puhua
sitten sumu lyö vimma

Ja polun elää venho mun
eroihin luistaa
ryypätä unikko mehu
rakastaa opettaa.

Tosi Oikeia

Auuthi usma hamará
laakkoisin ennustáze
Nephéli-noita noherá
noh
ée nomén nohemase

Phanomvisti nyn kiikeia
thumé psilé, mielé purá
Aistisi tosi oikeia
muunno den ton emperatá

Roglema pjægdystæ phoivon
iskusi iskii pyrína
Kluuen aden arka phusoo
kiithen sumpu lye víma

Ka poron elá venos mu
etéroisin ulistáne
Ryphestæ uvnikkoo methu
eráhestæ rophetáze.

So True

Anew, the dim mist
oneiromances to the valleys
The wise cloud witch
sees the heath in view

The memory of light now a frenzy
the feeling high, the mind red
The sense is so true
but I don’t understand it

The problem freezes the sun
the impact overpowers the core
I hear the voice begin to speak
then the fog destroys suffering

And my boat goes on the path
sliding into differences
drinking the hypnic mead
loving to teach.

Τόση Οικεία

Αύθι ύσμα αμαυρά
λάκκοισιν εννυστάζει
Νεφέλη-νοητά νοερά
νοέει νομήν νόημα σε

Φανομνήστη νυν κυκεία
θυμέ ψηλέ, μυελέ πυρρά
Αίσθηση τόση οικεία
μούνο δεν τον εμπερατώ

Πρόβλημα πήγνυσθαι Φοίβον
ίσχυση ισχύει πυρήνα
Κλύειν αυδήν άρχει φυσά
κείθεν συμπύκνωμα λύει πήμα

Και πόρον ελά βήνος μου
ετέροισιν ολισθάνει
ροφέεσθαι υπνικό μέθυ
εράεσθαι προφητάζει.

If you have a question about the etymology or usage of any words here, please let me know.

Finngreek Stories: The Fox and The Bear, Part 1

Finngreek Stories are designed to help readers learn the Finngreek language. These stories contain comparative texts in Finnish and Greek, to make learning easier. However, as Finngreek is based on ancient etymological comparisons, and has a different grammar from both languages, the Finnish and Greek texts appearing in these stories are not always grammatically correct. Please do not use these texts to study the Finnish and Greek languages: These texts are only for studying Finngreek.

The Fox and The Bear
Kettu ja Karhu
Kerdo ka Harku
Κερδώ και Αρκούδα

The fox is red, and the bear is dark.
Kettu on puna ja karhu hämärä on.
Kerdo on pura ka harku hamaraa on.
Κερδώ όν πυρρά και αρκούδα αμαυρά όν.

The red fox sees the berry-tree.
Puna kettu näkee marja-puun.
Pura kerdo noheei morja-phueen.
Πυρρά κερδώ νοέει μορέα-φυήν.

The dark bear sleeps, but then hears the fox.
Hämärä karhu nukkuu, mutta sitten kuulee ketun.
Hamaraa harku nukheuuei, muunno kiithen kluuei kerdon.
Αμαυρά αρκούδα νυχεύει, μούνο κείθεν κλύει κερδώ.

“Look, fox! It is my food.”
Näe, kettu! On ruoka mun.
Noe, kerdo! On rooga mu.
Νόε, κερδώ! Όν ρώγα μου.

“But I want it, bear! It is red, and a fox is red, so it is suitable for a fox.”
Mutta ton tahdon, karhu! On puna, ja kettu on puna, joten on oikeia kettuihin.
Muunno ton tatto, harku! On pura, ka kerdo on pura, pjothen on oikeia kerdoisin.
Μούνο τον τάττω, αρκούδα! Όν πυρρά, και κερδώ όν πυρρά, πόθεν όν οικεία κερδώισιν.

“It’s mine, fox, as a bear is strong.”
On mun, kettu, koska karhu on mahdikas.
On mu, kerdo, hos harku mahtikaa on.
Όν μου, κερδώ, ως αρκούδα μαχητικά όν.

“A bear is strong, but a fox is too smart.”
Karhu on mahdikas, mutta kettu on liian nokkela.
Harku on makhetikaa, muunno kerdo on liian noheraa.
Αρκούδα όν μαχητικά, μούνο κερδώ όν λίαν νοερά.

The fox awaits the morning-sun in the dark, thick mist.
Kettu odottaa aurinkoa hämärä paksu usmassa.
Kerdo rodokaa aurino hamaraa pakhu usmaesa.
Κερδώ προδοκά αύριον αμαυρά παχύς ύσμα έσω.

The bear sleeps again, as the sun is almost rising.
Karhu jälleen nukkuu, koska päivä melkein nostelee.
Harku pjallein nukheuuei, hos phoive mellein anostelleei.
Αρκούδα πάλιν νυχεύει, ως φοίβε μέλλειν αναστελλέει.

As the light shines, the fox again sees the red tree.
Koska palo palaa, kettu jälleen näkee puna puun.
Hos phano phanaa, kerdo pjallein noheei pura phueen.
Ως φανός φανά, κερδώ πάλιν νοέει πυρρά φυήν.

The fox finds that the bear has shut its eyes*, and then…
Kettu löytää karhu sulkee silmän, ja sitten…
Kerdo leyttei harku sunkleei thalmon, ka kiithen…
Κερδώ λεύττει αρκούδα συγκλείει οφθαλμόν, και κείθεν…

What will happen next? Stay tuned for Part 2!

NOTES:
– All words appearing in this story are considered etymologically related in one form or another, except for Finnish Ja and Greek Και (and), where a proposed connection is instead found with Finnish Kaa. This is the basis for Finngreek Ka(a), meaning ‘and/with, too’.
– Finngreek Harku can also be written as Harko, given Nganasan Ngarka. The actual comparison involved is Karhu = Harko = Άρκος, but since standard modern Greek uses Αρκούδα, Harku is also an acceptable form.
– Κερδώισιν (plural dative form of Κερδώ) is not an attested form, but is constructed based on other nouns with irregular -ώ(-ν, -ς) declension.
– *”Harku sunkleei thalmon” literally means “the bear shuts the eye”.






Finngreek 101: Nouns 1

This week’s post is about the basics of noun suffixes in Helleno-Uralic theory. There are patterns of phonology and morphology which are used to recognize the likelihood of nouns being related through Finngreek contact. Sometimes, a word in Finnish or a Uralic language is identical to its proposed Greek equivalent; and sometimes, changes happen which can be described as “regular” or “irregular”, depending on whether these shifts co-occur in other comparisons. This is not a comprehensive guideline, but an introduction to Finngreek noun morphology and phonology. This lesson covers aspects of the Finngreek noun suffixes -os, -e, -i, and -ma.


-OS

The Finnish language lacks productive gender, meaning that words do not follow the complex grammatical rules of gender found in many Indo-European languages, such as Greek. However, non-productive suffixes indicating gender and case can still be found in Finngreek. For example, the -os nominative suffix:

Shaking, Mixing = Seos = Seos = Σέος

This is considered a 1-to-1 correspondence, as virtually every phoneme is preserved. However, in Finngreek phonology, -os can undergo several changes, such as:

Loss of final -s
Quantity/Value, Number/Word = Luku = Logos = Λόγος
Outfit, Fleece = Puku = Pokos = Πόκος
Here, and in all other comparisons, it is unclear whether o>u or -os>-o occurred first.

Ravine = Rotko = Raktos = Ρακτός
Mist, Fog, Rain, Hot Spring = Utu/Udu = Udos = Ύδος
Heap/Size, Entirety/Bulk, Body/Mass = Koko/Kogu = Hogkos = Όγκος
Summit = Huippu = Hypsos = Ύψος

Metathesis (-os>-so):
Valley, Pit/Reservoir = Laakso = Laakos = Λάκος
Laakos>Laakso

Metathesis + Debuccalization (-os>-so>-ho)
Boat = Venho = Venos = Βῆνος
Venos*>Venso>Venho
(*A possibly more accurate reconstruction at time of contact would be Banos/βænos, given the assumption of -α->-η-, as well as Samic reflexes showing Van[s]-.)

Metathesis + Debuccaliztion + -Ch->-Ck-
Path = Polku = Poros = Πόρος
Poros>Porso>Porho>Polku

This last example seems like a lot, but it’s not unprecedented in Finnish. An example I see as evidence of -Cos>-Cko (C representing a liquid consonant) is Uros>Urho>Ukko.

Venoporo = Boat Path / Canal


-E

In Finngreek, final -e nouns mean one of two things: A masculine/feminine word in the vocative (vs. nominative) case; or a feminine word ending in -η in Ancient Greek (not -ις>-η). Looking back at a previous comparison, we can analyze a Finnish term in its nominative and vocative forms:

Masculine -ος/-ε
Boat = Venho = Venos = Βῆνος (nominative)
Boat = Vene = Vene = Βῆνε (vocative)

Most examples can only be reconstructed in a vocative case:
Lake (Proto-Uralic), Place = *towe = Tope/Tokwe = Τόπε < *tò(w)-kʷV-
Satiety = Kyllä = Kore/Koorre = Κόρε
Thunder God, Eagle = Perkele = Perknee = Περκνέ
Sleep = Uni < *une = Uvne (Hupne) = Ύπνε
Moon = Kuu < *kunge = Kukle = Κύκλε

Feminine -η
Tree/Noble Growth (of a plant), Nature = Puu < *puwe = Phue = Φυή
Billow, Censer = Tuiske = Thuiske = Θυΐσκη
Yard, Field, Area = Alue = Aule = Αυλή

Iotacism (the change of a vowel towards /i/) of -e>-i can occur in -η final nouns:

Moor/Pasture = Nummi = Nomi/Nommii = Νομή
Door, Opening (architectural) = Ovi < *owe = Opi = Οπή
Pond, Scum = Lampi = Lampi = Λάμπη
Point, Tip = Kärki = Hakri = Άκρη
These terms are now pronounced with /i/ at the end in both languages, but would have originally been pronounced with a final -e.

-I

An -i final noun in Finngreek can also indicate what was -ις/-is in ancient Greek, but is now -η/-i in modern Greek:

Memory = Muisti = Mvisti(s) = Μνήστις > Μνήστη
Child, Pregnancy = Lapsi = Syllapsi(s) = Σύλλαψις >> Σύλληψη

The suffix -i can also indicate a perceived final syllable loss of a word ending in -si(s) in Greek:

Sense = Aisti/Haisti = (H)aisthisi(s) = Αίσθησις/Αίσθηση
Information/Communication = Tieto = Diadosi(s) = Διάδοσι(ς)

Some proposals could theoretically fit into either category:

Good Luck, Happiness = Onni = Oni(si[s]) = Όνησι(ς), Ονή
Plant, Growth of Plants = Kasvi = Havksi(si[s]) = Αύξησι(ς), Αύξη

Hypsohakri = Tip of the Summit


-MA

The -ma suffix is interesting when comparing Finnish and Greek, because it involves a -t(a) plural form in both languages. This will be discussed more in a post for Noun Plurals.

Rage, Suffering = Vimma = Pima/Piimma = Πήμα
Finn, Person, Human = Suoma = Sooma = Σώμα
Drink = Juoma = Pjooma = Πώμα
Edge, Chasm = Särmä = Sarma = Σάρμα
Power, Battle-cry = Voima = Voima = Βόημα
Fog, Mist, Rain = Usma = Usma = Ύσμα


There are more suffixes to be explained, like -a(s) and -kkoo, in Nouns 2.



Finngreek 101: Verbs 1

In order to make the study of Finngreek more accessible, Finngreek.com is now a weekly blog! Every week, a post will be made to provide information and materials for learning the language. These posts will be organized into Categories for relevance. Today’s post is about Verbs 1.

The Finngreek language has a simple way of dealing with verbs, based on comparisons between Greek and Finnish, as well as other Uralic languages. While there is not a complete conjugation system, which will require long-term study of non-Finnic branches, basic sentences can still be formed from proposed etymological links.

Today’s post is a relaxed guide about using basic verbs and productive verb suffixes.

Indicative Present Verbs by Person and Number

The primary verb endings of Finngreek are mainly found in the indicative mood, present tense verb suffixes.
1st singular; -ing = -en = -ein = -ειν
2nd singular = -et = -eis = -εις
3rd singular/plural* = -ee = -ei = -ει
1st plural = -emme = -eme/-eemme = -έμε
2nd plural = -ette = -ete/-eette = -έτε

*In Finngreek, 3rd person plural is the same as singular, because the plural Finnish and Greek suffixes are not connected (-vat and -σιν/-sin, respectively).

With the exception of active infinitive -ειν, all suffixes listed above are indicative present.

Examples:
Noein phanon = I see the light, Seeing the light
Noeis phoivon = You see the sun
Kluuei roglema = He/she/it hears the problem, They hear the problem
Lalaamme lalon = We sing the song
Tektete duulia = You all do the work

As can be seen in Lalaamme, the verb suffix is dependent on the final vowel of the verb root it is attached to: Since the verb ‘to sing’ is Lalaa, it is just Lalaamme, and the -e- of -eme is omitted.


ON

On = On = Όν
On is the copula verb (‘to be, is’) of Finngreek, from the Finnish 3rd person singular indicative present copula On, and the Greek active participle(s) Όν/Ών. In Finnish, On means ‘is/are’ (plural [Puhekieli]); and in Greek, Όν means ‘being’. In Finngreek, ‘is/being/are’ are all On.

Examples:
Usma on pakhu / Usma pakhu on / On usma pakhu / Pakhuusmaon / Pakhúsmån
“The mist is thick”
Usmata on pakhu / Pakhúsmatån
“The mists are thick”


-([O]ISI[N])

-oisin = -oisin = -οίσιν
The suffix -oisin can be broken down into multiple variants, such as -aisin and -iisin. This suffix involves Greek optative and Finnish conditional verbs, but the etymology of Finngreek -oisin is actually from Finnish and Greek plural nouns in the illative and dative cases, respectively. In Finnic languages, debuccalization sometimes results in -isin>-i(h)in; and in modern Greek, the dative case was lost. In Finngreek, however, it’s a productive noun and verb suffix.

Adding -oisin to nouns describes a direction towards/with them; and adding it to verbs gives them a conditional (would) or optative (could) mood.

Examples:
Emperataa = To understand
Emperataaisin = I would/could understand
Noei nommiin = They see the pasture
Noeisi nommiisin = They could see to the pasture
Tattome pjomata = We want drinks
Tattoisime pjomata, kiidos = We would like drinks, thanks


Imperative Verbs

In both Finnish and Greek, the 2nd person singular imperative present verb suffix is -e, and occasionally may be another vowel, like -a. This ending turns a statement into a command.

Noeis rakton = You see the ravine
Noe raktoisin! = Look into the ravine!
Kluueis muusiikkiin = You hear the music
Kluue muusikkooisin! = Listen to the musician!
Rodokaas venoisin = You wait for the boat
Rodoka, vene! = Wait, boat!

If you need a comparative equation for any of the Finngreek words used in this post, feel free to leave your request in the comments!

Hungarian-Hellenic Affinity: Teljes = Τelḗeis (Τελήεις)

(This post is not written as an article, but just notes about my proposal of affinity between the following Hungarian [and thereby Uralic] and Hellenic terms.)

teljes (also **tele/teli** for ‘full’):

entire, full, total

complete

τελήεις/telḗeis:

(of sacrificial victims) complete, perfect, entire, without blemish

(of animals and humans) full-grown, adult

Related to, and largely synonymous with…

τέλειος:

having reached its end, finished

(of victims) complete, perfect, entire, without blemish

(of animals and humans) full-grown, adult

(of persons) absolute, complete, accomplished, perfect

(of things)

(of prayers, vows, etc.) fulfilled, accomplished

(of numbers) full, complete

(in arithmetic) those numbers which are equal to the sum of their divisors

the third bowl offered to Zeus

(of the gods) perfect, omnipotent, infinite

last

(neuter substantive) a royal banquet

(feminine substantive) a full stop, period

(adverb) at last

completely, absolutely

The Hungarian is ultimately from Proto-Uralic *täwde, with cognates like Nganasan ťerə, Inari Sami tievâs, Finnisη täydellinen (‘perfect’, which I compare with reduplicated τετελεσμένος/tetelesmenos, ‘that which has been perfected’); while the Greek is from PIE *kʷel-. Out of all IE descendants, only Greek presents *kʷ>t. Furthermore, the semantic value of “full, complete” in Greek Τελήεις/Τέλειος does not appear present in IE cognate terms (from what is available on Wikipedia) descended from *kʷel-, itself meaning ‘to move/turn’. This is also the source of *kʷékʷlos > κῠ́κλος/kúklos , which I believe is related to Proto-Uralic *kuŋe, with the listed descendants:

Samoyedic: *kïj

Kamassian: ки (ki)

Ugric:

Hungarian: hó, hold

Mordvinic:

Erzya: ков (kov)

Finnic: *kuu

In Hungarian, telihold is the full moon. I believe the Greek equivalent would be τέλειε κύκλε (or perhaps τελήεν κύκλε). If Τele/Teli=Τελή/Τέλει- are related, Hungarian is phonologically closer to the Greek term than any other IE or Uralic language (with Khanty [also Ugric] tel a close second).