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In the first draft of the first academic paper on Helleno-Uralic theory, I discuss sub-Uralic interrelations via quantitative affinity and kinship. This post provides key points of that study.
There is still not a consensus about the interrelations of the Uralic branches. I do not strictly adhere to one phylogenetic model. However, I propose two sub-Uralic lexicosemantic areal groupings:
The two triadic groupings – Finno-Ugric and Archaic Uralic – represent quantitative affinity: the overall number of Uralic proto-terms shared between any two or more groupings, per the Uralic Etymological Database (UEDB). When the co-representation of kinship terms is factored in, the Finno-Ugric triad is interrupted between Central Uralic and Ugric; while the Archaic Uralic triad is uninterrupted, due to the requirement of all three included branches’ lexical participation in the reconstruction of kinship.
Finno-Ugric as a grouping has existed since the 19th century CE. Support for Finno-Ugric in my study is influenced by my reliance upon data from the 20th century. As I explain in my paper, this study will need to be redone upon the release of a new Uralic etymological dictionary for the 21st century.
Archaic Uralic is my own proposal, which is essentially formulated from the perspective of the Samoyedic branch. Traditionally, Samoyedic has been viewed as the first branch of Uralic to diverge, leaving behind Finno-Ugric. In Häkkinen’s model, Samoyedic is instead grouped with Ugric as “Ugro-Samoyedic” or “East Uralic”.
The Finngreek model groups Samoyedic as having been originally equidistant from both West Uralic (Finnic + Mordvinic + Samic) and Ugric. Meanwhile, Samoyedic shares the least affinity with Central Uralic (Mari + Permic). both quantitatively and familially.
Archaic Uralic is named thus due to its proposed attestation of the Helleno-Uralic root arkʰ- ‘beginning; to begin’, whence indirectly English “archaic”. In Helleno-Uralic theory, Archaic Uralic represents a geolinguistic bond between Samoyedic and West Uralic, perhaps through which loans could have been exchanged with Archaic Greek.
Ultimately, the Finngreek model represents a continuum of disintegrating Uralic during the early 1st millennium BCE. West Uralic is the most interconnected group; and may have been the primary group in contact with Hellenic – although it is considered that Central Uralic and Ugric were not far from the area(s) of contact, as would be evidenced in the growing number of Helleno-Mari proposals (eg: HMa. ákrā ‘hill’, árdalos ‘dirty’, ásāmos ‘nonsensical’, glyk- ‘sweet’, mũtʰos ‘word’, oukí ‘no’, sarkáz- ‘to smile’, etc.), and terms reconstructed to Finno-Ugric (eg: HFU ama- ‘to shovel’, leúe- ‘to stone’, noītā ‘seer’, skápʰ- ‘small boat’, etc.). In regards to Helleno-Samoyedic potential, significant research will be undertaken to identify isolated terms, as Helleno-Uralic theory currently only represents Samoyedic in U < H proposals which can be reconstructed to a “Uralic” stage (eg: HU (z)dugātā́ ‘crossbar’, log- ‘to calculate’, ourā́ ‘squirrel < tail’, pʰus- ‘to blow’, etc.). The potential role of Samoyedic (via Archaic Uralic) in Helleno-Uralic exchange is therefore unclear until further notice.
This post focuses on building Finngreek reading comprehension through 10 sentences.
It is important to distinguish the grammar of Finngreek from the grammar of Helleno-Uralic theory: Finngreek grammar can be artificial and simplified. The Uralic and Greek texts are not grammatically correct: They are just rough guidelines for comparison, and for help with comprehension for Uralic and Greek speakers. Please consult the Helleno-Uralic academic draft, as well as previous posts, for etymological information regarding the Finngreek terms.
The English translations can be polysemic for the same term across sentences, as discussed in Helleno-Uralic proposals; and the English word order matches the Finngreek word order.
Line 1: Uralic (source languages)
Line 2: Finngreek
Line 3: Greek
Line 4: English
1. *puna *ora ripisee *tāllës (FU, FP, Fi., S)
purrā́ ourā́ ripízei thallό
πυρρά ουρά ριπίζει θαλλό
(the) red squirrel rustles (the) foliage
2. liian jalo suomalainen rutisee *melä (Fi., Fi., Fi., Fi., FP)
lían íaro sō̂ma rothízei mḗlǣ
λίαν ίαρο σώμα ροθίζει μήλη
(the) exceedingly strong person dashes (the) oar
3. harva korák ripisee harva kínde (F, Ma., Fi., F, Ma.)
harvó koráki ripízei harvá krīthḗ
αρβό κοράκι ριπίζει αρβά κριθή
(the) thin crow winnows (the) loose grain
4. *puna *nojta harva šərgəžéš (FU, FU, F, Ma.)
purrā́ noītā́ harvá sarkázei
πυρρά νοητά αρβά σαρκάζει
(the) redheaded seer seldom smiles
8. kəlgá *ora *luke jalo helmi (Ma., FP, FU, Fi., Fi.)
glyká ourā́ logéei iaró ħrē̂ma
γλυκά ουρά λογέει ιαρό χρήμα
(the) sweet squirrel counts (the) excellent treasure
5. asám suomalainen vargəžéš mut (Ma., Fi., Ma., Ma.)
ásāmo sō̂ma varkázei mûtho
άσαμο σώμα βαρκάζει μύθο
(the) nonsensical person barbarizes (the) speech
6. korák, áge *ājtëlës helmi (Ma., Ma., S, Fi.)
koráki, áge aídēlo ħrē̂ma
κοράκι, άγε αίδηλο χρήμα
raven, plunder (the) hidden treasure
7. *nojta *wala- *wojke kínde (FU, WU, WU, Ma.)
noītā́, válle woikeía krīthḗ
νοητά, βάλλε οικεία κριθή
seer, pour the suitable grain
9. kisá *iśɜ- asám mut (Ma., CU, Ma., Ma.)
kíssa iǐ́zei ásāmo mûtho
κίσσα ιύζει άσαμο μύθο
(the) bluebird shouts (the) unintelligible word
10. *ājtëlës šərgəžmáš uké liian (S, Ma., Ma., Fi.)
aídēlos sarkazmós oukí lían
αίδηλος σαρκασμός ουκί λίαν
(the) hidden smile (is) not excessive
These are 13 new Helleno-Uralic proposals, which will also be replacing some discontinued and postponed proposals in the current lexicon. Lían glyká!
Ma. ‘to destroy, to rob’; He. ‘to pillage, plunder, ravage, take’;? HMa. ‘to ravage’
Ma. agáš / агаш (MED) <<? He. ágō / ἄγω (LSJ, FEE, EW) <1 IE *h₂éǵe/o- ‘to drive (animals), lead’ (Ringe 2006, p. 188 [cf. He. ἄγειν])
The IE term shows wide distribution; and FU *aja- ‘to drive / jagen, treiben’ (UED) is ultimately from the same source. HMa. ág- is reliant upon the isolation of its semantics and phonology from other IE reflexes which would have been areally relevant to the development of the Ma. branch.
Ma. arká / арка (MED) <<? He. ákrā / ἄκρα (LSJ, EW) < ἄκρος (FEE) <1 ΙΕ *h₂eḱ-
Only if Ma. -rk- << He. -kr-.
árdalos < árda
Ma. ‘messy, slovenly, untidy’; He. ‘dirty, filthy, impure / impuro, sucio’
Ma. andále / андале (MED) <<? árdalos / ἄρδαλος (GP, SDGE) < árda / ἄρδα ‘dirt’ (FEE) < ?
Ma. andále ‘messy’ suggests an original noun *andá ‘mess’: Cf. paidále / пайдале ‘useful’ (MED) < paidá / пайда ‘use’; ajárle / аярле ‘poisonous’ < ajár / аяр ‘poison’, etc. Because He. árdalos shows derivation from nominal árda, Ma. << He. loaning is proposed. It is unclear whether Ma. -le should be morphologically compared with He. -los.
Re: Ma. -nd- << He. (C)r(V)T-, cf. HMa. kritʰḗ.
arv- ~? **(h)arv-*
HF ‘scanty, thin’, ‘seldom / ὀλιγάκις’
F harva (SK, SSA) ?> He. arvón / ἀρβόν (Hsch.; cf. ἀραιός [LSJ, FEE]) < ?
F ~ Es. harva (cf. Fi. harva [SSA]) ?> He. arvákis / ἀρβάκις (LSJ) < ?
*Re: HF h-: Cf. He. har- / ἁρ- (cf. ἀραιός [FEE]). H **harv/w- is my hypothetical reconstruction, which would then connect (h)araiós / ἀραιός ~ **harvaiós, arvákis / ἀρβάκις, and arvón / ἀρβόν.
Ma. ‘nonsense, rubbish, vulgar’; He. ‘ignoble, inarticulate, unintelligible’
asám / асам (MED) <<? He. ásāmos / ἄσᾱμος (cf. ἄσημος [LSJ, GP]) < σῆμα (FEE) < ?
Re: Ma. -VsV- << He. -Vs(s)V-, cf. HMa. kíssa. The result of Ma. s vs. š might then be due to its intervocalic position.
Re: Ma. -∅ << He. -os, cf. HMa. mũtʰos.
Ma. ‘too sweet’; He. ‘sweet’;? HMa. ‘sweet’
Ma. kəl’gá / кыльга (MED) <<? He. glykýs / γλυκύς (FEE) <1? ΙΕ *dlku-
The secondary vowel correspondence is unclear.
kǐ́nd- ~? kǐnd-
Fi. ‘fastened, fixed, secure’, ‘to fasten, fix, secure’, ‘fixed’, ‘fixed, stationary’; He. ‘wooden nail/peg’ ~? ‘unchangeable / ἀπαράλλακτος’;? HFS* ‘fastener;? fastened;? to fasten’
Fi. kiinni (SK, SSA), kiinnittää (SK), kiinteä (SK, SSA), kiinto- (SK) <<?> He. kǐ́ndalos / κύνδαλος (LSJ, FEE) ~? kǐndós / κυνδός (LSJ) < ?
The morphological comparison is unclear: Perhaps cf. He. aítʰalos / αἴθαλος ‘smoky flame, thick smoke; smoky’ (LSJ, FB), aítʰós ‘burnt, red-brown, shining / αἰθός (LSJ, FB), aĩtʰos / αἶθος ‘burning heat, flame’ (LSJ, FB) < aítʰō / αἴθω ‘to burn, kindle’ (LSJ). This may suggest H *kǐ̃ndos / *κῦνδος ‘nail, peg,? fastener’ (or in light of HMa. árdalos < árda: H *kǐ́nda / *κύνδα) < *kǐ́ndō / *κύνδω ‘to nail, peg;? to fasten’. Regardless, He. kǐ́ndalos is assumed to be derivative; and the act of fastening or fixing would have been semantically relevant to the original HFS term.
The HF vocalism ǐ suggests F << He. loaning; but the lack of He. etymology leaves the possibility of a sound substitution of F -ii- > He. -y/?ȳ-.
Ma. ‘tit’; He. ‘jay (Garrulus glandarius), magpie (Pica caudata)’;? HMa. ‘type of bird (with blue coloring and a rapid birdsong)’
Ma. kisá / киса (MED) <<? He. kíssa / κίσσα (FEE) < ?
Examples of tits found in the zone of Mari speakers include the blue tit / кандалге киса (Cyanistes caeruleus), azure tit / ошалге-канде киса (Cyanistes cyanus), and great tit / ужар оҥан киса (Parus major). A comparison with the Eurasian jay and Eurasian magpie is unclear: The blue and azure tits, and Eurasian jay and magpie, all have vibrant blue wings; the great tit and the magpie both have black heads and beaks (although the former also has white cheeks); and of their birdsongs, the blue and azure tits have in common with the Eurasian magpie a rapidly repeating call, the progressive tone of which may be mid > low. The greatest perceived similarities are thus between the blue and azure tits with the Eurasian magpie. However, tits are smaller than magpies; and their birdsongs are of a higher pitch.
kon- ~ koni-
FP *konɜ ~ *kunɜ (UEDB) <? He. konía / κονία (LSJ) ~ kónis / κόνις (FEE) << IE *konis
He. kónis / κόνις ‘ashes’ is virtually identical to PIE *konis ‘ashes’. However, FP distribution weakens synchronicity with PIE; and there is not an IE reflex with the proper intial vocalism or semantics (‘lye’) to formally dissociate from the He. term. However, the HFP secondary vowel is unclear.
kóre-; koré- ~ koríz-
F ‘beautiful / kaunis’; He. ‘maidenly*, of a maiden’;? HF ‘beautiful (of a girl or woman)’
Fi. korea (SSA) <<? kóreios / κόρειος (GML) < κόρη (FEE) <1 IE *ḱerh₁-;
Fi. ‘to decorate’, Es. ‘to clean’ <<? He. ‘to purify, sweep out’ ~ ‘to clean, sweep’
Fi. koristaa (SK, SSA), Es. koristama (EE) <<? He. koréō / κορέω (FEE) ~ korízō / κορίζω (LSJ) < ?
The He. terms are all derived from a root kor-, or rather multiple homophonous roots; but the etymology of the latter terms (‘to sweep’) is unknown: The base of korízō / κορίζω (GML) is koréō / κορέω, with no further source. Re: HF comparisons, cf. also He. koúrios / κούριος ‘youthful’ < koũros / κοῦρος, Ionic for kóros / κόρος ‘boy, youth; besom’ (LSJ, FEE), which is the masculine counterpart to kórē / κόρη ‘bride, girl, maiden, virgin’ (LSJ, ML). F -o- (vs. -u-) << He. -o- is unclear; but perhaps cf. HFP ourā́ with He. koúrios and koúrē / κούρη (LSJ) re: vowel length, if not due to another aspect of its environment.
The semantic context of HF kóre- is unclear: It might refer to a specific state of beauty of a maiden or bride, or it might instead refer to the general beauty of a girl or woman.
*reasoned from ‘of a maiden’: Cf. παρθένιος ‘maidenly, of a maiden’ (LSJ).
roik- ~? roisk- ~ ruísk-
Fi. ‘diarrhea / Durchfall / ripuli’; He. ‘fluid / ρευστός; he who suffers from diarrhea / αυτός που πάσχει από διάρροια’; HF ‘diarrhea’
Fi. ruikku (cf. ruikata [SSA]) <<? He. roikós / ῥοικός (GML) < ῥόος (GMT) < ῥέω (FEE) <1 IE *sreu̯-
Fi. ‘hose, sprayer, syringe’;? He. ‘brook, rivulet’
Fi. ruisku (SK) <<? He. roískos / ῥοΐσκος (LSJ) < ῥοή (FB) < ῥέω
Fi. ‘to spray, spurt, squirt / spruta*’; He. ‘to flow, have diarrhea’
Fi. ruiskaista ~ ruiskata ~ ruiskia (Lönnrot 1880, p. 440), ruiskua (SK) <<? He. ruískomai / ῥυΐσκομαι (LSJ) < ῥέω
Ma. ‘sieve’, ‘to sieve, sift’; He. ‘strained’, ‘sieve; to sieve’*; HMa. ‘sieve; to sieve’
Ma. šokté / шокте, šoktáš / шокташ (MED) <<? He. saktós / σακτός (LSJ, GML) < sakeúō / σακεύω ‘to strain’ (LSJ) ~ sáttō / σάττω ‘to compress’ (FEE) < ?
If Ma. šokté < šoktáš is the correct derivation, then an original H *saktō verb must be reconstructed. However, a Ma. back-formation is perhaps worth consideration, with the noun as an original loan from a nominalized He. *saktós ‘sieve, strainer’ (cf. HF raktós for internal He. nominalization of an adjective; as well as F -otk- <<? He. -akt-. The vocalism may be relevant to Ma. šokt- <<? He. sakt-). In lieu of He. saktós, cf. sáktas / σάκτας ‘sack’ (LSJ) ~ sáktēs / σάκτης ‘sack’ (ML).
*Cf. He. sákkos / σάκκος ‘bag, sieve’ (FEE) + sakéō ‘to sieve’ (earlier form of sakeúō).
Ma. šə́gəle / шыгыле (MED) <<? He. sỹkon / σῦκον (FEE) < ?
The Ma. suffixation is unclear.
After two years and four months, the first draft of the first academic paper about Helleno-Uralic theory is finally complete! I have made it available here on Academia.
The Finngreek website will be edited over the next few days, in order to be based on the current state of research. Happy New Year, and Iará Mukhá (excellent journeys)!
Happy Halloween! This week’s post is a Finngreek poem, using words we’ve learned over the past 3 months.
tʰúellan nóītā kǐdạ́
to sō̂ma iaró
mḗlē rotʰízẹ mukʰá
to kaũma to págos
kǐ́rios leúẹ hapsín
áīma ripízẹ vē̂non
windstorm seer praises
the person divine
oar dashes riverbends
the heat the frost
master throws net
wind fans ship
the seer praises the windstorm
the divine being
the oar dashes rivers
the heat and the frost
the captain casts the net
an artful strand
the wind fans the ship
a hidden treasure