Finngreek Syntax

The word order of sentences in Finngreek is, like Greek and Finnish, very flexible. The structure is understood by the suffixes at the ends of words. Here are some examples of the free word order in Huve/Hypae:

What drink is this? / Mja pjoma an tåtå?
(å may be o/å/a: totoon/tåtåån/tataan)

Mja pjomaan tåtå?
Mja pjoma tåtåån?
Mjaan tåtå pjoma?
Mja tåtå pjomaan?
Tåtå pjoma mjaan?
Pjomaan tåtå mja?

The last one is pretty unusual, and I would probably never naturally think or say it, but it’s still understandable to read, which underlines the free word order. Let’s try a more complex sentence:

The fruit is made by the tree / Hedloba tehdontae phuthe (fruit made-is tree-from)

Hedloba tehdontae phuthe
Phuthe tehdontae hedloba
Tehdontae phuthe hedloba
Hedloba phuthe tehdontae
Phuthe hedloba tehdontae
Tehdontae hedloba phuthe

In each sentence, the same information is communicated, because Finngreek syntax relies on suffixes, instead of word order. We know that the Hedloba is made by the Phu, because it is Phuthe, with the -the meaning ‘from’. Also, we know that the Hedloba is the object instead of the subject (The fruit is made vs. The fruit makes [from the tree]), because the ending of the Tehd- root is -ontae, which is passive, instead of the active -an suffix.

Now, there is one situation where word order does matter in Finngreek: Simple SVO. Because Finngreek doesn’t have articles (a/the) with cases like Greek – nor a true partitive case like Finnish – direct subject>object in 3rd person may rely on the subject to be placed before the object.

The person eats the food = Sooma tso rooga
Because the person and food are both in 3rd person, there is no way to determine who is eating whom. If it were “Rooga tso sooma“, then the food would be eating the person.

However, there is one way this sentence can be made flexible: With the -n accusative suffix.

I don’t often use the accusative -n suffix, but it is still useful in situations like this. By simply adding -n to the end of the object, the sentence order can be free again:

The person eats the food = Sooma tso roogan

Sooma tso roogan
Roogan sooma tso
Tso roogan sooma
Sooma roogan tso
Roogan tso sooma
Tso sooma roogan

Now you can make any three-word sentence into 6 options. Poikilia poikitse!

Attire/Fleece = Puku = Poko = Πόκος

Attire, Fleece (suit, dress, costume) =
Puku = Poko(s)/Poke/Puku = Πόκος/Πόκε/Πόκου
To wear = Pokoo/Pukuu

Pokoom poko poljon = I wear fleece a lot
Pukuum pukumu phutaliase = I wear my attire in the treegarden
Pokoom pokemonepokebaita duulide = I wear a Pokemon shirt to work

I believe that wool was the primary fabric worn by Finngreeks. According to Iamcountryside, Finland’s own breed of sheep, the Finnsheep, was brought to Europe 2,500 to 3,700 years ago, during the Bronze Age. In order to be synchronous with the proposal of Greeks living in the Finnic areas, sheep would have been living in the area for at least around 3,500 years, with some of them presumably having been brought to the area by Greeks, as sheep agriculture probably started in Mesopotamia between 11,000 and 8,000 BC.

For the ancient Greeks, sheep were the primary livestock, providing wool, dairy, and meat. The significance of wool to the Greeks is well-known in the myth of The Golden Fleece. As for how fleece would have been culturally viewed in the Finngreek times, I can’t say – but I imagine it was a welcome textile during the northern winters. Fleece may have also been the fabric involved in poiki (discussed at the end of Lesson 19), which as a root term, probably originally described weavers making colorful, variegated patterns.

Sense = Aisti = Aistisi = Αίσθηση

Sense, Scent, Perception, Feeling:
Aisti<Haisti = Aistisi/Haisthisi, Aisthi = Αίσθηση

To sense/perceive, smell
Haistaa = Aistaa/Aisthaa/HaisthaaAistaan(-om), etc. = Αισθάνομαι


This is the first word in Finngreek I didn’t find myself! A very cool Finn in our Discord server brought the word to my attention. All I can say is: It’s a good word!


Aisthaanomaetta haisthisi hypaee = I sense that the smell is good

Aisthi atta aistaam ahypae = The scent that I smell is good

Aisthaame kluklada puulubuutarase = We smell flowers in the garden

Aistisi, idoni = The feeling, joy (Your feeling, my joy)

Fruit = Hedelmä = Hedropá = Χεδροπά

The remains of peas and fava beans have been found in Finland dating from 500 BC. Legumes bear fruits, known as pulses in English, which we typically label as vegetables.

The Finnish word Hedelmä (fruit) has been considered to be a loan from a Baltic language, with a comparison to Lithuanian žíedas (blossom, flower) made. However, I propose that there is a Greek word which demonstrates better phonetic and semantic parallels: Χεδροπά.

Χεδροπα/Hedropá (pulse, leguminous fruit) is interestingly considered to be of Pre-Greek origin, meaning that the word has not been etymologically traced back to Proto-Indo-European. However, there is a folk etymology for the word: Χείρ+δρέπω/Hand+pluck. Although it is unsure given their PIE and Proto-Uralic etymologies, I like to compare Finnish Käsi with Greek Héri (Χέρι; compare the Doric variant Hérs/Χέρς).

I’ve previously discussed the similarities of Finnish marja (berry) and Greek moréa/μορέα (mulberry) as it pertains to berries (although I will later be making a more in-depth post) – as well as mustikka with múrtila/μύρτιλα (bilberry) – but historically, sweet fruits in Finland were not common (lingonberries and cloudberries come to mind). Meanwhile, pea soup is a Finnish staple; and according to this article, it’s traditional to eat it on Thursdays.

While most modern Greeks might not recognize the word χεδροπά from a glance – and while Finns probably wouldn’t associate the taste of peas with a sweet hedelmä, it is nonetheless a fascinating term for constructing the Finngreek language.
Fruit, Legume = Hedelmä = Hedropá/Hedrepá, Hedabaa (simplified) = Χεδροπά, Δρέπω
Bear fruit = Kana Hedropaa/Heđabá

Sakaripurahedabaa morjaa = The berry is a sweet, red fruit
Den itseram atta hedropaaontae! = I didn’t know that this is a fruit!
Hamaathae poljohedrepaa aksvaa = From the ground, many fruits grow
Ruhumehe puulubuutara heđabákana = After the rain, the tree-garden bears fruit

Sleep = Uni < *Une = Uvne = Ύπνε

Sleep = Uni < *Une = UvneUvni = Ύπνε, Ύπνοι

Sleepy = Unelias = UvneilosUvneljosYvnelias, etc. = Υπναλέος, Υπνηλός, Υπνηλίας

Hypnic (Sleep-inducing), Poppy = Unikko = Uvnikoo = Υπνικός


As is regular in many word proposals from Hellenic into Proto-Uralic/Proto-Finno-Permic/Proto-Finno-Ugric, etc., the final *-e relates to Greek vocative case. However, because nominative plural is also often a source, I include Greek húpnoi > ípni, as the pronunciation of Greek οι in the modern language is /i/, as in uni – so there are two forms: Uvne and Uvni. Additionally, a third form is available through the artificial hypervowel ei/ej: Uvnei/Uvnej.

This term for ‘sleepy’ is complicated by the sheer variety of derived adjectives from ύπνε which could theoretically follow phonological shifts from Hellenic into Finnic. Because of this, there are various ways to describe being ‘sleepy, drowsy’, etc., such as: Uvneilos/Uvnejlas, Uvneleas, Uvneljos, etc. Additionally, there is a very close phonetic match to unelias, which is hupnelias>ipnilias (υπνηλίας, ‘of drowsiness’), or Finngreek Yvnelias/Uvnilias, etc. I don’t believe this would be the exact word Finnish unelias came from, as it may have only been in use since Koine Greek. However, its phonetic parallels with Greek υπνηλίας make it a great word “Hypæklæssæđe” (for the Finngreek language).

The Finngreek term Uvnikoo is a new favorite of mine. I often demonstrate the vowel stress in Greek being after geminate consonants in Finnish, thus -kko<-koo(-κό). To me, this term helps to illustrate the state of medicine in the “Finngreek era”, with poppy being used as a hypnic (sleep-inducing) substance. Its analgesic properties were probably welcome for anyone who could afford it or grow it (poppies may have originated in the Mediterranean) in Finland, since the lifestyle of living on gruel and working in the harsh fields – or gathering mushrooms and berries all day; stripping bark from trees, and so on – probably wasn’t very kind to the body.


Some related Finngreek words, which aren’t clear proposals, but fall into the category of “sleep”:

Dream, Paradise = Onni (happiness, luck), Onnela = Onela/Onera, One/Oni/Onei = Όνειρα

Happy, Idyllic, Fantastic = Onnellinen = Onerimen = Ονειρεμένος

This comparison is due to the Komi (Permic) and Erzya (Mordvinic) shared term for “dream”: On/Oн.

I believe these terms, due to their similarities in phonetics and semantics, may not be from a reconstruction like Proto-Finno-Ugric *adema, but actually from ónar/óneira (όναρ/όνειρα), or a similar variant.


One question arises for me amid these proposals: The origin of Finnish unelma (dream) and unelmoida (to daydream). I looked for comparable terms in Greek. The noun suffix ‘-ma’ is common in both Finnish and Greek; and there is a Greek term for ‘daydream’, oneiropoolejma (ονειροπόλημα; from ονειροπολέω, ‘to daydream/deal with dreams’). However, this term is quite long – and given that Finnish unelma matches more closely with ύπνε, I am inclined to believe that ‘unelma’ descends from a word that was lost (or that I can’t find) somewhere between Late Proto-Hellenic (or Mycenaean) and Homeric Greek. Were unelma<oneiropoolejma, it would require the exchange of *une/*uni in place of oneiro, as well as loss of -πό-.

While this is an obscure mystery (amara mysteejri), we can take away from this post new words to describe sleeping, dreaming – and even a flower!



Uvneeme nytaethae hameraze = We sleep from night to morning

Uvneilossae? Uvneljomae = Are you sleepy? I’m sleepy

Uvnikoon uvnikluklo = The poppy is a sleep-flower

Toto uvnikoo tehdomae uvnelias = This hypnic (medicine) makes me sleepy

Uvnemuse oneon = In my sleep (there) is a dream

Oneraa kaonii thesiija = Paradise is a beautiful place

Onerimenom ezoemuse kode tehto hypaeduuli = I’m happy in my life when doing good work

The Finngreek Hypervowel Heart (Hyvǽđifyrín)

The Hypervowel Heart (Finngreek: Hyvǽđifyrín) is a method to explain the relationships of vowels between Finnish and Greek. There are two types of hypervowels: 3-range (Hre-aule), and 5-range (Vindi-aule).

Three-range hypervowels (Hreaulehyvǽđes) consist of three vowels in a chain, where the middle vowel is considered the hypervowel. For example: If a vowel in Finnish is an “e”, and a vowel in Greek is an “i”, the hypervowel is “ei”. This is shown as “e-ei-i” in the hypervowel system.

Likewise, five-range hypervowels (Vindiaulehyvǽđes) consist of five vowels in a chain, where the first and fifth vowels are represented in the middle hypervowel. For example: If a vowel in Finnish is an “a”, and a vowel in Greek is a “u”, the hypervowel is “o”. This is shown as “a-å-o-uo-u” in the hypervowel system.

Here are some example of words that can be proposed as related through their hypervowels:

Highland = Ylämaa + Ypsåma (Ύψωμα). The hypervowel is A (æ-a-å). Note that the vowels ä and ω equal æ and å, respectively. This results in Finngreek Yvama.

Sublime = Ylevä + Ypsilaa (Υψηλά; modern Greek pronunciation). The hypervowel is EI (e-ei-i). This results in Finngreek Yveila, or Yvejlá. Please note that ei=ej, because this hypervowel oftentimes corresponds with the Greek letter ejta (Ηη), which held this phonetic value in Ancient Greek.

Moon = Kuu<*kuŋe + Kiikle (Κύκλε; modern pronunciation). The hypervowel is Y (u-y-i). This always corresponds with the letter ypsilon, which was pronounced /y/, as the letter is pronounced in modern Finnish. This results in Finngreek Kyykle. However, it can also be written Kuukle, which I often do to make it easier to recognize for Finns and Greeks, due to the similarity of u and υ.

Basically, hypervowels correspond to phonological values which are found in Ancient Greek and Proto-Hellenic – and how they descend into the modern Finnish and Greek languages.

Many times, Finnish and Greek vowels are only one degree apart (if they are not just the same phonetic value). For example:

Mountain = Vuori + Ori<*worwos (Όροι/Όρη). The letter W (digamma) was lost in Greek, but its remnants can still be seen in Homeric ouros (ούρος), where *wo>ou (/u/ in modern Greek); and Mycenaean Greek (wo-wo). While a range of three vowels is not demonstrated, the hypervowel is still known because of the relationship between the adjacent vowels o and uo/wo. Therefore: o-uo-u. In Finngreek, I normally write mountain as Wori.

Five-range hypervowels are rare by comparison, and only correspond to certain phonological values. One that is common throughout Indo-European languages is the e-o shift. Basically, throughout the evolution of languages, the vowels e and o can trade places. For example:

Tax = Vero + Foros (from fero/φέρω, ‘to carry/bring’). The Ancient Greek origin demonstrates the e in modern Finnish Vero. This is technically an example of a 5-range hypervowel, where the hypervowel is A (e-æ-a-å-o). However, in Finngreek, this manifests as a word with multiples varieties: Vero/Fero, and Voro/Foro.

This is a big part of the Finngreek concept of Poikilia Poikitse, which means “Variety Everywhere”. The relationships of vowel phonemes through their hypervowels can result in multiple ways that words can be written and pronounced.

In Finngreek, hypervowels are used to propose the common origin of modern Finnish (via Proto-Finnic and Proto-Uralic) and Greek words from archaic Greek. They are essential for understanding vowel shifts. The Hypervowel Heart I’ve made does not explain every way vowels can share relationships (one good example of this is the Greek αυ > Finnish ä, which I will discuss in a later post). However, a Uralic word can not be proposed to be loaned from Hellenic, unless the root word adheres to the vowel relationships illustrated in the Finngreek Hypervowel Heart.

I hope this has helped to answer some questions you may have about hypervowels. Feel free to ask more about the Hypervowel Heart in the comments!

Sing, Voice = Laulaa, Ääni = Lalaa, Aadi = Λαλάω, Αυδή

From a glance, the equation for ‘to sing’ doesn’t seem remarkable. Many languages use the sound “Lala” as an onomatopoeia to express the sound of singing, from English to Chinese. However, Finnic and Greek are unique in that they have this sound as a stand-alone verb to express ‘to sing’.

Finnish ‘laulaa’ is from Proto-Finnic *lauladak. Other descendants include Karelian ‘laloa’ and Estonian ‘laulma’. Greek ‘lalåå/λαλώ’ means ‘to sing, talk, speak’, and is also seen in the mediopassive form ‘lalūmä/λαλούμαι’ and ‘lalūū-‘ prefix. Related words include λαλιά/λαλιή/λάλον (speech, voice, language), λάλημα (chatterer), and λάλος/λάλου/λάλα (talkative).

There is a similar set of words in IE languages regarding ‘to lull, lullaby’, such as Latin ‘lallo/lallus’ and Lithuanian ‘laluoti’. However, these terms all carry the meaning of sleepiness and laziness, which is not present in the Finnish and Greek words; these languages have separate terms for ‘to lull, lullaby’. On the contrary, the Finnish and Greek terms seem to express energy, such as Finnish laulattaa, ‘to want to sing/to cause one to sing’. However, given the phonetic components; that Latin heavily adopted Greek words; and that my proposed Hellenofinnic contact period spans the range of the Baltic sea, I believe it’s possible these terms could have all been related at one point, perhaps stemming back to the Greek λαλώ, which has an unclear etymology.


To sing = Laulaa = Lalaa/Lalww/Lalåå/Laloo/Laluu = Λαλώ/Λαλάω

Song = Laulu = Lalu/Laaluu = Λαλού-, Λάλου

Sound/Voice = Ääni = Aedi = Αυδή

(compare Votic ‘Ääli’ for d>l shift)

To pronounce/enounce/articulate/speak/voice/sound = Ääntää (Äännän) = Aedae = Αυδάω (Αυδάειν)


Aedaen aedimu = I voice my voice

Aedaen aediemii = I voice my voice

Laluu lalumu = I sing my song

Ajam atta laulaasu kaoniia! = I think that your singing is beautiful!

Puliintunaedi aedae puuluθae = The bird’s voice sounds from the tree

Poljopuliintu lalaa paraviivapan = Many birds sing on the beach

Laloomeemperikle kuukle = We sing about the moon

Laloome kuukleemperikle = We sing about the moon

Vois kuu muu nyn? Hypae! = Can you hear me now? Good!

Lesson 21: At Home

(There/Here/Now/This) Is = Ole = Ode = Όδε
Basically, ‘ode’ is another form of ‘on(tae)’

House = Koto/Koti = Kotiki/Kotoko, Τekoto/Koto(na) = Κατοικία/Κάτοικος, Τέκτων, te-ko-to-na-pe

Yard/Field/Area = Alue = Aule/Aulej/Auli = Αυλή

Fence/Blockade/Wall = Tukos = Toikos/Tuikhos = Τοίχος

Gate = Portti = Porte = Πόρτα

Door = Ovi = Ovii/Opi = Οπή (opening/hole)

Window = Räppänä (vent) = Paraapana = Παράθυρα

Ground = Hama(a)

Floor/Foundation =
Pohja, Permanto = Pathja(ma), Perbato = Πάτωμα, Βάσεων, Βάθεα, Περπατώ

Floor (level/story) = Kerros = Kerkos = Κερκίδα < Κερκίς < Κέρκος

“Kerkos” and its related Greek source words originate from the concept of rows in a stadium or theater, and also involves other meanings. This is not an obvious term for modern Greeks, but has to be learned. The relationship between the Greek terms is not clearly understood by linguists; but I imagine that tiers/rows were the ancient equivalent to a level/story in the modern world. Κερκίδα is still used in modern Greek for rows/tiers in a stadium/theater.

Ceiling / Roof = Katto = Katos = Κάτω (under). See entry for ‘Porch’ below.


Kotokonaulese ode hedlobaphuta = In the house’s yard, there is a fruit tree
Tekotonauleemperikleode toikos = There is a fence around the house’s yard
Kotikihens ka tuikhossesa porteon = In front of the house and between the fence is a gate
Kotokotaakseion opi = Behind the house is a door
Kotokotaaksei ode ovii = Behind the house is a door
Tekoto ehii akta paraapanata = The house has eight windows
Hamaaseode pathja = The foundation is in the ground
Kotokoseode pathjama = The floor is in the house
Opihu ksinkerkosseon = Their door is on the second floor
Oviinda ksinkerkosseon = Their door is on the second floor
Opindaa ksinkerkosse = Their door is on the second floor
Ovii hanoon ksinkerkosseon = Their door is on the second floor
Ksinkerkosseode oviiehii = Their door is on the second floor
Katoskatoode perbato = Under the roof is the floor
Katoskato perbatoon = Under the roof is the floor
Perbatonkatoskato = Under the floor’s ceiling


Entrance/Foyer = Eteisaula (entrance hall) = Eisodo/Eisjodo, Eisaule = Είσοδος + Αυλή

This equation connects Finnish ‘esi-‘ with Ancient Greek ‘είς’.

Exit = Ulos/Ulko (out) = Eksulos, Ukso(s) = Έξοδος

Room = Huone, Kamari (via Swedish) = Ho(o)re, Kamari = Χώρε, Καμάρη

Living Room = Ezoehore (life room)

Dining Room = Rahitohore/Rahitorio/Favitoriio, etc.

Kitchen = Keittiö = Keiriio/Makeitiio = Μαγειρείο

Bedroom = Uvnehore/Uvnihore (sleep room)

Bathroom = Kylpyhuone = Kalpihore = Καλλωπισμός (grooming/beautification/toilette)

Stair(s) = Porras = Poros = Πόρος (passageway)

(front) Porch = Veranta = Eiskatos (front-roof), Veranta = Βεράντα

The Finnish word ‘katos’ refers to a shelter, or a structure that covers. In Greek, κάτω means ‘under/below’, and is also used in many compound nouns. The word ‘kato(s)’ is a flexible word in Finngreek: It refers to anything with a roof when used as a noun, especially through the addition of a final ‘s’ to kato(s). Also, kato is used to mean ‘under’ when added to a noun (eg: Katoskato, ‘under the roof/ceiling’).

Garage = Autokotoko/Autokotiki (car house), Autohore, Autokamari (carport)

Hall(way) = Harvajaahore (thin/sparse room)


Kotokohenson eisjodo kaa tekototaakseion eksulos =
In front of the house is the entrance, and in the back of the house is the exit
Horemunontae. Sympidaes kamariemii? = This is my room. Do you like my room?
Ezoehore vihloeraa muuna favitorioon kedla =
The living room is green, but the dining room is yellow
Keiriiose haisthaa huvee = It smells good in the kitchen
Irenostikoon uvnehorese = It’s peaceful in the bedroom
Ode wete kalpihorese = There’s water in the bathroom
Wetimenon kalpihorese = It’s wet in the bathroom
Poros poljon psiklaa katoisin = The stairs to the roof are very tall
Poros poljon psiklaa huvenkerkonde = The stairs to the floor above are very tall
Kotokoneiskatos eisopihenson = The house’s front porch is in front of the front door
Autokotokoseode auto = The car is in the garage
Harvajaahore harvajaapsiklaa = The hallway is thin and long


Chair = Tuoli (From Swedish) = Tloni/Toni/Toonii, Throli = Θρονί

Couch = Platjatloni/Platjatoni/Platjatoonii, Platjathroli

Table = Pöytä = Rapuda/Raepydae, Trapoyta = Τράπεζαι

Desk = Krapuda/Hrapuda (Kra + Rapuda: A book/writing table)

Lamp = Lamppu, Valo = Lampo/Lamppoo, Vano = Λάμπω/Λάμπα/Λαμπάς, Φανός

Carpet/Rug = Pathjakraka(s)/Pathjapoko(s) (floor-fabric/floor-fleece)

Bed = Vuode = Krevoode = Κράββατε/Κρεβάτι

Closet, Dresser, Cabinet = Komero + -ke = Kamerake = Καμαράκι

Drawer = Kamerakuuti (closet/dresser/cabinet box)


Phuthaetloni ksureaa muuna metallithaetoonii hropejaa =
The chair (made) from wood is brown, but the chair (made) from metal is silver
Platjathrolion kedlapura. Midi? = The couch is orange. Why?
Emii neworihedloba rapudase = I have fresh fruit on the table
Krapudandaan duulize = Their desk is for work
Heloisis lampotto harvajaapsiklaan = You would like a lamp that is thin and tall
Heloisime harvajaapsiklaalamppoo = We’d like a thin and tall lamp
Pathjakrakaskatoode perbato = Under the carpet is the floor
Pathjapokoskatode pathjama = Under the rug is the floor
Krevoodesu poljon diskova = Your bed is very hard
Kamerakeseode favito = There is food in the cabinet
Emaateon kamerakese = There is clothing in the closet
Emii poljonksoksomu kamerakuutise = I have my many socks in the drawer


Toilet/Outhouse = Käymälä (outhouse) = Kalyma = Καλύβα (hut)

Sink = Pesu (wash) + Kulho (bowl) = Plusekuplo = Πλύση (wash) + Κύπελλο (vessel, goblet)

Shower = Ruhumekone (‘rain machine’)

Bathtub = Itselemmi (self-pond), Itseals/Itsethallas (self-sea), Pluselemmi (wash-pond)

Faucet = Hana (From German) = Hanola = Κάνουλα

Mirror = Itselali/Itsekotso (self-glass/self-see)


Kalymames phutarjaseon, den kalpihorese = Our toilet is in the woods, not in the bathroom
Wete thulla plusekuplohanolathae = Water comes from the sink’s faucet
Ruhumekoneweti hestimenon nyn = The shower’s water is hot now
Itselemmiemiion kluthalavko = My bathtub is gold and white
Itselali toikoskaan = The mirror is on the wall


Refrigerator = Krymakamerake, Krymekone (Cool cabinet/Cool machine)

Freezer = Pakastin = Pagastira = Παγωτήρας

Oven = Uuni (from Swedish) = Fuurni = Φούρνοι

Stove = Liesi = Fleksi = Φλέξει (It will burn)

Pantry = Keiriiokamerake

Tool/Utensil = Kalu = Ergalo/Erkalu = Εργαλείον, Εργαλο-(θήκη, etc.)

Spoon = Kauha (scoop) = Kohaa = Κοχλάρι

Knife (also Blade, Wing) = Terä = Teryga = Πτέρυγα

Fork = Haara>Haarukka, Kärki = Hakra, (Hre)Hakri = Άκρα/Άκρη

Silverware = Hropejata (the silvers)


Pagastiraan krymekonekato kaa fuurni fleksikatoon =
The freezer is under the fridge, and the oven is under the stove
Keiriiokamerakeseon ergalus = There are utensils in the pantry
Kohaa ka teryga hja hakraa kaithi hropejatantypes =
A spoon, knife, and fork are all types of silverware


Plate = Lauta(nen) = Plata/Plate = Πλατύς, Πλάτα/Πλάτη

Glass = Lasi (from Swedish) = Lali = Ύαλοι/Γυαλί

Container, Pot = Tölkki = Tohii = Δοχείο

Bowl/Cup = Kulho/Kuppi = Kuplo/Kupli = Κύπελλον/Κυπελλίς

Shelf = Toikorapuda (wall-table)

Wood = Phutimen (from Phu, “tree”)

Metal = Metalli/Metallo

Ceramic = Keraaminen = Keraamine(n) = Κεράμινε


Platakaanhedloba = The food on the plate
Vo kotso lalipoiki = (I) can see through the glass
Hypaeklaese voi tohii na mikku toi isto = In Finngreek, a container can be big or small
Heloisim erankuplotsa = I’d like one cup of tea
Ivaatimu toikorapudakaan = My clothing is on the shelf
Phutimentoikorapuda kinoomempiontae metallithae =
The wooden shelf is more interesting than the metal (shelf)
(Notice that kinoomen>kinoomempio/kinoomemple, kinoompio/kinoomple)
Kalpihoresenkeraaminenkuplontae plusekuplo =
This ceramic bowl in the bathroom is a sink


Television = Kluvvakuuti (“picture box/cube” [Kuutio + Κουτί])

(also: Kluvvakuvu[s], Kluvvakuvuku[s], Kluvvukuvu[ku{s}/Kluvukuvus/Kluvukuvukus)

These are sourced from ‘kyvykkyys’ (ability) and ‘κύβος/κυβικός’ (cube), also giving the meanings “of a cubic picture” and “picture ability”.

Computer = Tietokone = Dedomekone, Tseromekone, etc. = Δεδομένα + Μηχανή, Ξέρω

Telephone = Puhelin (from ‘puhella’) = Pulelaa, Pomekone = Πολυλογά (chatterbox)

Cellphone = Kännykkä = Kene/Kenehdaa = Κινητό

Trash = Krääsä (kitsch, junk) = Akrasa/Ahrasa/Aekraesae/Aehraesae = Άχρηστα (useless)

(Again = Jälleen = Pjallei[n] = Πάλι[ν])

Recycling = Pjalleinkiiklo/Pjalleinkuukle (Again-cycle)

Compost = Pjalleinhamaa (Again-soil)

Environment = Ympäristö = Emperismo = Εμπειρισμό(ς)


Kluvvakuutiseode jokati kinoomen istoriaemperikle =
On the TV, there is something interesting about history
Ode jokati kinoomen ensemperi kluvvakuutise =
There is something interesting about history on the TV
Tseromekonemuseon sinimenvalo = (There) is a blue light in my computer
Pomekoneode hjordokaankenehdaa = A phone is a cellphone with a cord
Akrasa voi haisthanontae hondo = Trash can smell bad (lit. “Trash can be smelled bad”)
Pjalleinkiiklo kaa pjalleinhamaa hypae emperismoisin =
Recycling and compost are good for the environment


Sit = Istua = Isto/Isdo/Izdo/Izo = Ίζω/Ίσδω (Doric)

Stand = Seistä = Seisa(e)/Steista(e) = Στήσαι (aorist infinitive)

Sleep = Uvnee

Wake up/Rise = Aksvaa

Get ready = Itsetehda/Itsetekto (do, make oneself)


Tooniimuseizdoom = I’m sitting in my chair
Raepydaehypaesteistaes = You’re standing on the table
Uvnee haemaeraehuvnehorehuse = They’re sleeping in their dark bedroom
Aksvaam amerase krevoodemuthae = I wake up in the morning from my bed
Itselalimuhens itsetehdam midi peraepsi vena duulisin suntuma =
I get ready in front of the mirror, because I have to go to work soon

Lesson 19: Adverbs and More!

Could = Voisi

Should = Pitäisi = Peraepsi = Πρέπει, Πρέψαις

In order to = Jotta = Jada/Janta = Για να


Voisim mejeenam paraviivaze jon den emii duuli =
I could/would go to the beach if I didn’t have work
Mejeenaisim paraviivaisin jon den emii duuli =
I could/would go to the beach if I didn’t have work

The -isi- suffix, briefly introduced in Lesson 5, is in full effect in the last sentence. It is used to express two things here: Finngreek conditional/optative mood (mejeenaisim), as well as Finngreek illative/dative case (paraviivaisin). In the future, we will discuss more about the semantic and phonological flexibility of this mood/case. For now, however, we are simply attaching -isi- after the last vowel of each word, with an -m on mejeenaisim to make it 1st person, and an -n on paraviivaisin, because -(_)isin is the standard ending of plural illative in Finnish*, and plural dative in Greek.
(*Notwithstanding s>h debuccalization in certain words)

Peraepsim mejeena duulisin konta = I should go to work soon
Peraepsis pjo hedlobapjoma hameerrase = You should drink the fruit drink in the morning
Peraepsim mejeenam askioisin jada askaa = I should go to the gym in order to exercise
Peraepsim mejeena askionde jada askaa = I should go to the gym in order to exercise
Peraepsi venam askahamaaze janta askaa = I should go to the gym in order to exercise


Always / Forever = Aina, Aion = Aiina/Ainaa, Ai, Aioon/Aiona = Αέναα(-άως), Αεί/Αιέν, Αιώνα

Usually = Yleensä = Suneesa = Συνήθως

Seldom, Sparse = Harvoin = Harvajaa/Harvajoin = Αραιός/Αραιοίν

Never = Denkode

All / Every = Kathi/Kaithi/Kathiki

None = Denden

Some / Which = Joku = Koju = Κοίου + Κοιού (Ionic: ‘who’ + ‘of a certain nature/kind’)

Something = Jotain/Jotaikin/Jotaki = Jokati, Kojukaa = Κάτι

Someone = Jotka (who) = Pjoskaa, Kojakaa = Κοία, Κάποιος

Somewhere = Jodokaa

Sometime = Kodekaa

Sometimes = Joskus = Jonkodes (if when’s) = Εάν ποτέ (if ever)

Somehow = Konkaa

Tha aiona helo tso huvehedloba = (I) will always want to eat good fruit
Suneesa den sympidaem mejeena worisin = I usually don’t like to go to the mountain(s)
Harvajaa pjon ozutho kaa denkode pjo wiini = They seldom drink beer, and never drink wine
Pjois kathiki wiini muun denden ozuthon = You drank all the wine, but none of the beer
Heloisin atta tsos koju lihaaniksa = They’d like that you eat some vegetables
Jokati sakarimenon emperi favito = Something is sweet about the food
Pjoskaa helon sa kotson kotokose = Someone wants to see you in the house
Jodokaa phutarjaseon jokati sinimen atta aksvion =
Somewhere in the forest is something that is a blue plant
Kodekaa thullease tha tsome poljon = Sometime in the future, we will eat a lot
Jonkodes emii pjoma wete laakkose = Sometimes, I have a drink of water in the valley
Konkaa tha veneme kuuklede koju puraava = Somehow, we will go to the moon someday


Expressing comparatives (more, -er) and superlatives (most, -est) in Finngreek is done through a couple of options:

More = -mpi<-mpa = -mple (-o/-a), -mpio = Πλέω, Πιο

Most = -isto, -isin

Big, Bigger, Biggest: Isto, Istomple/Istompio, Istoisto/Istoisin

Small, Smaller, Smallest: Mikkuu, Mikkuumple/Mikkuumpio, Mikkuuisto/Mikkuuisin

For adjectives ending with -men, more variety appears:

Happy: Idonimen
Happier: Idonimemple/Idonimempio, Idonimple/Idonimpio
Happiest: Idonimenisto/Idonimenisin, Idoniisto/Idoniisin


Auri istompleon koin kuukle = The sun is bigger than the moon
Avaruus istoistoon kaa atom mikkuuistoon =
Space is the biggest, and an atom is the smallest
Idonimpleom midi hameraan nyn = I’m happier, because it’s morning now
Idoniisinon kodekode sungovdian = They’re happiest whenever it’s autumn


Everywhere = Poikitse = Poikitse = Ποικίλος/Ποικίλε, Ποικιλτής

Finnish Poikitse means “All over the place, through, across”, and Greek Poikiltes means “Weaver”, from Poikilos (Dappled, variegated, changeful, intricate). Three things can be proposed from this: That -itse (self) and -ites (person connected with) are cognates; that the semantics of Finnish Poikitse describe the actions of a weaver; and most importantly, that Poikitse and Poikiltes, having originally been the same word, ultimately descend from the very same *poik(ki)- stem. It can be inferred from this that the Finngreeks, in their contact period, had a weaving economy which manifested a preference for “parti-colored” and changeful designs and patterns, which had been worked through, and across, the fabrics.

In this meaning, the Finngreek word Poikitse means ‘everywhere’, and also ‘variety’, ‘changefulness’, and ‘difference’ in a way that is positive and desired. Thus:

Everywhere, All over = Poikitse

Weaver = Poikitse

Difference, Change, Variety, Pattern, Weave, Evolution, Metamorphosis (figurative) = Poiki

Different, variegated, evolving, changeful = Poiki, Poikimen

To change, To vary, to weave, to evolve = Poiki

To be different, To be changed = Poikimae/Poikimeno(-mae)

Variety = Poikilia/Poikiliia/Poikilija = Ποικιλία

Species, Type = Lia/Liia/Lija, Tup/Tupi/Tupu/Tupe


Poikitse hamaase voi na hyv = Everywhere in the world can be good
Hamaapoikitse voi on yv = All over the world can be good
Poikitse tehda poljon tehne duulihuse = The weaver makes many crafts at their work
Tae poikitupe on tosi poiki = This pattern-type is very different
Poiki vanaarha kaa neworion = Evolution is ancient and new
Poiki vanaaraneorion = Evolution is ancient and new
Poikimae wetespoiki = I have changed through the years
Poikimenontae poikitypiksi = It has changed into a different type
Poikimenintae poikilijaksi = It evolved into a different species
Poikilia voi na ravikaa = Variety can be colorful


Lesson 18: Work, School, and Hobbies

Work = Työ, Duuni = Duu/Duuli, Dye = Δουλειά/Δούλος, Δύη, etc.

Career = Yveduu (good/high work)

Hobby/Joy = Harras/Hartaat>Harrastaa>Harraste = Hara = Χαράς, Χαίρεσθαι, Χαρτά<Χαρτός

Theory = Theoria

Subject = Aihe = Aithie = Αιτίες (reason/cause; category), Αίτιε<Αιτέω


Hara mun on duu = My hobby is work
Duuliemii hyveduulidenon = My work is not a career
Emii theoria historiaemperi = I have a theory about history
Demmikkuuaithiee = It’s not a small subject

Music = Musiki/Musikii

Math = Mathe, Mathematikaa

History = Ens (lit. “to one, to the first”), Historia/Istoria

Knowledge/Science = Tiedo = Teto/Tedo/Dedo/Deto/Dido = Δεδομένα<Δίδωμι, Δοτός

Language = Kieli/Kielessä<*käle = Klae/Klaessae, Kheili = Γλώσσα/Γλάσσα, Χείλι<Χείλη/Χείλεα

Linguistics = Klaededo/Kheilideto

Health/Medicine = Terve(ys) = Terpededo/Thervetehde = Τέρψις/Τερπνέ< Τέρπω, Θεραπεία

Anthropology = Laasteto, Ahravadeto (Person = -las/-lainen = Laa(s) = Λαός/Λαοίν/Λαέ)

Archaeology = Valadedo/Vanaarhatedo

Astronomy = Staerideto


Musikkiion klymaaithie = Music is a cool subject
Ηοndoom mathematikaase = I’m bad at math
Yvekheilion = It’s Finngreek
Mjaemperikleon detoesii? = What do you have knowledge about?
Staeridetoon aithie staeresemperi = Astronomy is a subject about stars
Thervetehde hyve poljoisin = Medicine is good for many
Ens emperikleontae vanaarhanarka = History is about old time


Art/Craft(ing) = Tehde/Tehdae/Tehda, Tehne, etc.

The art of making language, “Language Crafts” = Klaetehdae/Kheilitehne

Technology = Thulletehde (Future-craft)

Machine = Kone = Mekone = Μηχανή

Engineering/Mechanics = Mekonedeto/Mekonetehde

Computer = Tseromekone/Detomekone (knowledge machine)

Computer science = Tseromekonedeto

Calculator = Laskin, Logi (10 (Sami)) = Logi/Loki = Υπολογιστής

Robot, AI = Mielemekone
(Machine-mind; Mind = Mieli = Miele(e)/Μielo/Miali = Μυελέ/Μυελοί>Μυαλό)

Robotics = Mielomekonedeto, Mieleemekonetehde

Futurism = Thullemielismo (Future-mind-ism; -sto = -smo), Thullismo

Biology = Laemadedo (Life-science; Life = Eläma = Lama/Laema/Laama = Λάμα/Λήμα

Botany = Phutedeto/Aksvidido

Gardening = Phutetehde, Phutarjamine, Aksviaksvisi

Fashion = Tapa = Tsopo = Τρόπος

Sports =
Urho (hero)>Urhea (brave)>Urheilla (play sports)=
Urokla (sports; -kla variety suffix), Uroizda (play sports),
Ηρώς (hero)>Ηρώια/Ηρωικά (concerning heroes/heroic)>Ηρωίζω (to act like a hero)

Exercise, Training, Practice = Askare (daily chore) = Aska = Άσκω / Ασκέω

To exercise/work out, To practice = Askaa

Gym = Askio (-io diminuitive/place-making suffix), Askahama/Askaahamaa

Chess = Shakki = Ksaki = Σκάκι (both ultimately from PII *kšáyati)


Klaetehdae tehneon = Language-making is a craft
Thulletehde voi na huvee thulleaze = Technology can be good for the future
Tseromekonekaam = I’m on the computer
Esii logi matheze? = Do you have a calculator for the math?
Mielomekonetehde voi na diskova = Robotics can be hard/difficult
Thullismo thulleaemperikleon kaa lamadetoon emperi lama =
Futurism is about the future, and biology is about life
Ehuve phutarjamineze jon tseras emperi phutedeto =
It’s good for gardening if you know about botany
Uroizdom urokla tsopode = I play sports for the fashion
Askaame askiose = We work out at the gym
Ksaki mialiaskaan = Chess is a mind-exercise

School = Koulu = Skolo = Σχολή

Teacher = Opettaja = Ropheette, Ropheettajo, Rophettalaa(s) = Προφήτης

to Teach = Opettaa = Rophettaa(zda) = Προφητάζω

Learn/Study = Rophee(omae), Skoloomae

Guide (noun) = Ohjaaja = Ahjoja = Αγωγά

The meaning of the Finnish word Ohja as a rein may derive from the Greek Agå/Άγω, meaning “to lead”, as its descendant word Odegå/Οδηγώ refers to riding a horse (And in modern times, driving a car).


Rophettalaas on = He/she/it is a teacher
Worespoikiahjojasu thaam = I will be your guide through the mountains
Rophettaame tseromekonedeto kinuo skolose = We teach computer science in that school
Ropheeomae poljon aithies thullihyviduulimuze =
I study many subjects for my upcoming career


Listen = Kuulla = Kluua = Κλύω

Speak, Say, Tell = Puhua = Phusaa/Phusoo, Po = Φυσώ, Πω

Understand (lit. “to hold in one’s hand) = Käsittää = Keriizda/Khersiizda = (μετα)Χειρίζω

Kluue kodekode phusoon = Listen whenever he/she/it speaks
Sae phusaam mja helom atta khersiizdas = I tell you what I want you to understand
Keriizdate poljon telekheiliemperi nyn! = You all understand a lot about Finngreek now!