This is our final post of the series! After this, any new terms will be incorporated into the most relevant available post.

Helleno-Uralic verbs offer insight into the activities of the people involved in the Uralo-Hellenic contact period. Verbs have already been partly discussed in Part 1. In Part 2, a special class of verbs are discussed: the -ízdō verbs. These verbs are compared due to their shared suffix; and are currently only etymologized from Greek into the Finnic and Mari languages. In Finnish, the suffix -ista is found; and in Mari, the suffix -(ə)žáš is found: These Uralic suffixes are compared with Hellenic -ízd(ō) and -(á)z(d[ō]), respectively.

In Helleno-Uralic Theory, -zdō is identified along with the nominalizing derivative -(z)mós: Cf. Ma. -(ž)máš. However, it is unclear whether HMa. -mós can be reconstructed; or if they are rather cognates that ultimately descend from a PIE *-mos.

The HU -ízdō verb roots are generally defined as onomatopoeic or descriptive in origin in both Hellenic and Uralic etymologies. However, in certain cases, these verb are derived from a noun, which allows for semantic context.


*arízd- ~ arrízd
HF ‘to growl, snarl / knurren’
Fi. äristä ~ häristä <> He. arrízdō / ἀρρίζω < ?

HF *arízdō is posited due to the variation of He. arázdō ~ arrázdō. I tentatively compare Fi. äreä ‘grumpy / mürrisch’ with He. áreios / ἄρειος ‘martial, warlike’, which would ultimately derive from the name of the god Árēs / Ἄρης. This comparison is possibly fortified by the relevance of the dog to Ares: For example, Spartans sacrificed dogs to Ares. If He. arrízdō can be derived from Árēs, then the loan must be considered F < H, as the attestation of Ares predates the currently proposed timespan of HU contact. However, F < H loaning may not explain the initial h- of häristä, which suggests an original rough breathing – unless psilosis of HF *(h)arízd- was underway during HU contact. Regardless, all terms connected with He. arrízdō are ultimately of an unknown provenance, which formally leaves open the possibility of a F > H loan.

Fi. ‘to crackle (of fire) / knistern (“ritistä”), crumble / bröckeln, flutter down / rieseln, rustle / rascheln’;
He. ‘to blow up or fan (the flame)’
Fi. ripistä <<? He. ripízdō / ῥιπίζω < ripís / ῥιπίς ‘fan’ < ríptō / ῥίπτω ‘to throw (down, out)’ < ?

The exact meaning of HF ripízd- is unclear, due to the semantic variety in both the F and He. terms. Perhaps it described the fanning, and subsequent crackling, of a fire.

Fi. ‘to crash (repeatedly) / krachen’; He. ‘to move something rapidly causing noise’
Fi. rutista, rytistä <<? He. rotʰízdō / ῥοθίζω < rótʰos / ῥόθος < ?

Cf. HS rótʰ-: He. rótʰos also means ‘dash of oars, roar of waves, rushing noise’. These semantics imply nautical contact and/or travel.

HMa. ‘to smile’
see HMa. sarkazmós

Ma. ‘to cry, scream, shout, shriek, squeal, yell’; He. ‘to mangle, speak gibberish, speak like a barbarian / βαρβαρίζω’
Ma. vargəžáš / варгыжаш <> He. varkázdō / βαρκάζω < ?

He. varkázdō is an isolated term – contrast with the regular derivation seen in Ma. vargəžáš / варгыжаш > vargəžmáš / варгыжмаш. This suggests H *varkazmós / *βαρκασμός if a Ma. < He. loan. However, Ma. > He. loaning can not be ruled out, due to the lack of further He. etymology, as well as the “barbarian” semantics.

Ma. ‘to call’; He. ‘to squeal like a pig’
Ma. yžáš / ӱжаш <<? He. hyízdō / ὑΐζω < hỹs / ὗς ‘swine’ << PIE *sūs

Also reconstructed is HMa. (h)yizmós: Cf. yžmáš / ӱжмаш ‘call’ <<? He. hyizmós/ ὑϊσμός ‘squealing’.


Now that the first collection of terms has been proposed, focus in future posts will shift to the history and linguistics behind Helleno-Uralic contact. Aídālos mũtʰos ripízdẹ, daídalos vē̃nos rotʰízdẹ…

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