The Finngreek economy involved the exchange of goods and services between the Hellenic and Uralic peoples. I have previously discussed the transportation of contact and goods in the post Vē̃nos: Resailing the Finngreek Ship; as well as topographical features of the range of contact in the post Mukʰá: Reviewing the Finngreek Landscape. In this post, items and terms of communication of the Helleno-Uralic contact period are discussed.


now (HMa.)
Ma. ə́nde / ынде <? He. árti / ἄρτι << PIE *h₂rti (Matasović 2020, p. 14)

This loan is uncertain due to the Armenian cognate ard / արդ ‘now’; but due to synchronicity, PIE *h₂rti could not be the source of Ma. ə́nde, unless U cognates can be presented from a PIE loan – or if IU were confirmed, and the Ma. form was a sole U reflex. Because HMa. is (along with HF[S]) the best-supported HU subgroup – and there is no established basis for (Graeco-)Armenian <> Mari contact (along with the absence of final -i in the Arm. form) – He. árti is still considered exceptional in its affinity. Ma. ə́nde also means ‘already’; and He. árti also means ‘just now, recently’: So it appears that HMa. ‘now’ would have described both the present and recent past.

shirt (PG, PF); coat (PG, PH)
PG *paidō ?> PF *paita <?> He. baítā / βαίτα < ?

All paths of loaning are marked as uncertain, due to the overall unknown provenance of these terms. It is unclear whether the PF and He. terms demonstrate HU contact, or whether they are indirectly related.

amber, bead, gem, pearl (F); goods, heirlooms, money, riches, temple-treasures (He.)
Fi. helmi < PF *helmi < He. h͔rē̃ma / χρῆμα <1? PIE *ĝher-

F secondary-vowel reduction is assumed due to the length He. -ē̃- (cf. HF sō̃ma). The original HF semantic value is unclear: While it is tempting to suggest ‘amber’ due to Baltic > Mycenaean amber trade, this meaning is not found in He. It may have rather been a general term for luxury goods.

bread, cereal, grain (Ma.), barley (He.)
Ma. kínde / кинде <? He. krītʰḗ / κρῑθή < ?

Liquid metathesis to avoid initial consonant clusters is precedented in HU (cf. h͔rē̃ma, brokʰā́). Re: He. -rT- > Ma. -nd-, cf. HMa. árti. Because recessive accent does not seem applicable in the context of HMa., the initial-vowel stress of Ma. kínde must be due to long He. -ī-. This would also need to be the explanation for Ma. -í-, where -é- might rather be expected. It is difficult to make a phonological conclusion, as this is the only HU proposal including He. ī / ῑ.

too much (HF)
Fi. liian < PF *liian ~ *liiɣan > He. lían / λίαν < ?
Loaning from PF must have occurred after the weakening of gradated medial PF *-g- to /ɣ/, or H *lígan would be expected (cf. He. olígos / ὀλίγος). It also must have been an early loan, already present in Homeric (cf. λίην).

to calculate (HU)
PFU ~ PU *luke <? He. logéō / λογέω <1 PIE *leǵ-
Con.: PIE *loǵ-? (cf. He. lógos / λόγος)

conversation, speech, word (HMa.)
Ma. mut / мут <> He. mũtʰos / μῦθος < ?

*nákā ~ nákē
leather (PF); woolly/hairy skin, fleece (He.)
PF *nahka ~ PS *nākkē > He. nákē / νάκη < ?

oukí ~ oukʰí
no, not (HMa.)
Ma. uké / уке < He. oukí / οὐκί << PIE *(ne) h₂óyu kʷid (Kim 2016, p. 45)

Re: Ma. u- < He. ou-, cf. HU ourā́.

rypʰ– ~ rypʰé- ~ rýpʰō
to drink, sip (Fi.); to gulp, slurp, sup greedily up (He.)
Fi. ryypätä << He. rypʰé- / ῥυφέω << PIE *srobʰéyeti < *srebʰ-

The HF root would appear to require He. rýpʰ-, with recessive accent.

2 thoughts on “Logéė: Recounting the Finngreek Economy

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s