Could = Voisi

Should = Pitäisi = Peraepsi = Πρέπει, Πρέψαις

In order to = Jotta = Jada/Janta = Για να


Voisim mejeenam paraviivaze jon den emii duuli =
I could/would go to the beach if I didn’t have work
Mejeenaisim paraviivaisin jon den emii duuli =
I could/would go to the beach if I didn’t have work

The -isi- suffix, briefly introduced in Lesson 5, is in full effect in the last sentence. It is used to express two things here: Finngreek conditional/optative mood (mejeenaisim), as well as Finngreek illative/dative case (paraviivaisin). In the future, we will discuss more about the semantic and phonological flexibility of this mood/case. For now, however, we are simply attaching -isi- after the last vowel of each word, with an -m on mejeenaisim to make it 1st person, and an -n on paraviivaisin, because -(_)isin is the standard ending of plural illative in Finnish*, and plural dative in Greek.
(*Notwithstanding s>h debuccalization in certain words)

Peraepsim mejeena duulisin konta = I should go to work soon
Peraepsis pjo hedlobapjoma hameerrase = You should drink the fruit drink in the morning
Peraepsim mejeenam askioisin jada askaa = I should go to the gym in order to exercise
Peraepsim mejeena askionde jada askaa = I should go to the gym in order to exercise
Peraepsi venam askahamaaze janta askaa = I should go to the gym in order to exercise


Always / Forever = Aina, Aion = Aiina/Ainaa, Ai, Aioon/Aiona = Αέναα(-άως), Αεί/Αιέν, Αιώνα

Usually = Yleensä = Suneesa = Συνήθως

Seldom, Sparse = Harvoin = Harvajaa/Harvajoin = Αραιός/Αραιοίν

Never = Denkode

All / Every = Kathi/Kaithi/Kathiki

None = Denden

Some / Which = Joku = Koju = Κοίου + Κοιού (Ionic: ‘who’ + ‘of a certain nature/kind’)

Something = Jotain/Jotaikin/Jotaki = Jokati, Kojukaa = Κάτι

Someone = Jotka (who) = Pjoskaa, Kojakaa = Κοία, Κάποιος

Somewhere = Jodokaa

Sometime = Kodekaa

Sometimes = Joskus = Jonkodes (if when’s) = Εάν ποτέ (if ever)

Somehow = Konkaa

Tha aiona helo tso huvehedloba = (I) will always want to eat good fruit
Suneesa den sympidaem mejeena worisin = I usually don’t like to go to the mountain(s)
Harvajaa pjon ozutho kaa denkode pjo wiini = They seldom drink beer, and never drink wine
Pjois kathiki wiini muun denden ozuthon = You drank all the wine, but none of the beer
Heloisin atta tsos koju lihaaniksa = They’d like that you eat some vegetables
Jokati sakarimenon emperi favito = Something is sweet about the food
Pjoskaa helon sa kotson kotokose = Someone wants to see you in the house
Jodokaa phutarjaseon jokati sinimen atta aksvion =
Somewhere in the forest is something that is a blue plant
Kodekaa thullease tha tsome poljon = Sometime in the future, we will eat a lot
Jonkodes emii pjoma wete laakkose = Sometimes, I have a drink of water in the valley
Konkaa tha veneme kuuklede koju puraava = Somehow, we will go to the moon someday


Expressing comparatives (more, -er) and superlatives (most, -est) in Finngreek is done through a couple of options:

More = -mpi<-mpa = -mple (-o/-a), -mpio = Πλέω, Πιο

Most = -isto, -isin

Big, Bigger, Biggest: Isto, Istomple/Istompio, Istoisto/Istoisin

Small, Smaller, Smallest: Mikkuu, Mikkuumple/Mikkuumpio, Mikkuuisto/Mikkuuisin

For adjectives ending with -men, more variety appears:

Happy: Idonimen
Happier: Idonimemple/Idonimempio, Idonimple/Idonimpio
Happiest: Idonimenisto/Idonimenisin, Idoniisto/Idoniisin


Auri istompleon koin kuukle = The sun is bigger than the moon
Avaruus istoistoon kaa atom mikkuuistoon =
Space is the biggest, and an atom is the smallest
Idonimpleom midi hameraan nyn = I’m happier, because it’s morning now
Idoniisinon kodekode sungovdian = They’re happiest whenever it’s autumn


Everywhere = Poikitse = Poikitse = Ποικίλος/Ποικίλε, Ποικιλτής

Finnish Poikitse means “All over the place, through, across”, and Greek Poikiltes means “Weaver”, from Poikilos (Dappled, variegated, changeful, intricate). Three things can be proposed from this: That -itse (self) and -ites (person connected with) are cognates; that the semantics of Finnish Poikitse describe the actions of a weaver; and most importantly, that Poikitse and Poikiltes, having originally been the same word, ultimately descend from the very same *poik(ki)- stem. It can be inferred from this that the Finngreeks, in their contact period, had a weaving economy which manifested a preference for “parti-colored” and changeful designs and patterns, which had been worked through, and across, the fabrics.

In this meaning, the Finngreek word Poikitse means ‘everywhere’, and also ‘variety’, ‘changefulness’, and ‘difference’ in a way that is positive and desired. Thus:

Everywhere, All over = Poikitse

Weaver = Poikitse

Difference, Change, Variety, Pattern, Weave, Evolution, Metamorphosis (figurative) = Poiki

Different, variegated, evolving, changeful = Poiki, Poikimen

To change, To vary, to weave, to evolve = Poiki

To be different, To be changed = Poikimae/Poikimeno(-mae)

Variety = Poikilia/Poikiliia/Poikilija = Ποικιλία

Species, Type = Lia/Liia/Lija, Tup/Tupi/Tupu/Tupe


Poikitse hamaase voi na hyv = Everywhere in the world can be good
Hamaapoikitse voi on yv = All over the world can be good
Poikitse tehda poljon tehne duulihuse = The weaver makes many crafts at their work
Tae poikitupe on tosi poiki = This pattern-type is very different
Poiki vanaarha kaa neworion = Evolution is ancient and new
Poiki vanaaraneorion = Evolution is ancient and new
Poikimae wetespoiki = I have changed through the years
Poikimenontae poikitypiksi = It has changed into a different type
Poikimenintae poikilijaksi = It evolved into a different species
Poikilia voi na ravikaa = Variety can be colorful


3 thoughts on “Lesson 19: Adverbs and More!

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