This lesson is about learning the different cases of a noun, so that one can build sentences. During this lesson, we are going to take words in Finngreek, and modify them with different case endings. The definition of a ‘case’ is ambiguous in the language, as several cases can be analyzed as postpositions attached to nouns: So there are more potential ‘cases’ than just the ones listed here. Regardless, this lesson contains 18 cases:

1- The nominative case is the same as whatever a word’s plain form is. It is the subject in a sentence: Pheivi phanaa / The sun burns

2- The accusative case (-n*) is the object in a sentence: Kluue aadin = Hear the voice
(*: -n is optional; its usage depends on syntax)

3- The genitive case (-n) shows possession in a sentence: Nepheelin wetsi = The cloud‘s water

4- The ablative case (-the) means ‘from’: Ambre on nepheelethe = The rain is from the cloud

5- The allative case (-de/-ze/-zde/-dze) means ‘to’, or ‘towards’:
Anmethe pheelidze = From the air to the cloud

6- The illative/dative case (-[o]isi[n]), when used for nouns, is about the same as allative:
Aimathe nepheeleisin = From the air to the cloud

7- The comitative case (-ka[a{ns}]) describes something being ‘with’ something else:
Pheivi on nepheelekaa = The sun is with the cloud

8- The inessive case (-se/-så) is used when something is ‘inside’ something else:
Stazde on nepheelesse = The rain is in the clouds
Wete on usma = The water is in the mist

9- The elative case (-[u]kso, -[e]ksulos) indicates something ‘outside’ of something else:
Phano on auriksulos = The light is outside the sun

10- The antessive case (-[{h}e]ns) shows being ‘in front’ of something:
Aurihens on nepheeli = In front of the sun, there is a cloud

11- The postessive case (-taaksei), as the opposite of the antessive, is used to mean ‘behind’:
Nepheeletaaksei on auri = The sun is behind the cloud

12- The subessive case (-kato, -ana/-alo) means ‘under’:
Thullakato on tosi wetsi = Under the storm is so much water
Aurialo on nepheeles = Under the sun, there are clouds

13- The superessive case (-ura/-uurraa) is used when something is ‘on/over’ something else:
Auri on nepheelesuraa = The sun is above the clouds

14- The apudessive case (-veri/-pjeri) identifies something ‘beside, next to’ something else:
Auriveri on kuukle = Next to the sun is the moon

15- The adessive case (-lihe[na]) means ‘near’:
Kuukle on aurilihe = The moon is near the sun

16- The perlative case (-poiki) indicates motion ‘through’ something:
Phaivaphano phanaa pheelipoiki = The sunlight shines through the cloud

17- The semblative case (-koin) is equivalent to ‘like’ in English, when comparing two things:
Phano phanaa aurionkoin = The light burns like the sun

18- The translative case (-ksi) describes something ‘becoming’ something else:
Ambrepheeles thuulliksi = The rainclouds become a storm

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